# XTO-14806 Statistics & Mathematics

## Vak

Studiepunten 6.00

 Onderwijstype Contacturen Lecture 8 Tutorial 42 Practical 25 Independent study 0
 Course coordinator(s) drs. JFB Philipsen Lecturer(s) Dr M. Bastiaansen (BUas) Examiner(s) Dr M. Bastiaansen (BUas)

English

### Contents:

This course offers basic statistical and mathematical knowledge and skills that are necessary to develop and execute a research project. The course presupposes a minimum level of mathematics-A in Dutch pre-university education.
The course will address the following subjects;
- descriptive statistics (measurement; variables; statistical measures);
- probability;
- normal distribution;
- random and non-random sampling procedures;
- reliability tests and confidence intervals;
- correlation and regression.
Students will practice data analysis techniques in individual and group assignments. They will be trained in using SPSS independently for executing the data analysis techniques and to interpret the output. The students will apply the knowledge and skills of this course in XTO-14306 National Field Project.

### Learning outcomes:

After successful completion of this course students are expected to be able to:
- capture topics that relate to tourism, the social sciences, (and more generally to the world around them) in numbers;
- construct objective quantifications of 'soft' concepts such as involvement, happiness, etc.;
- understand variables, and the different levels of measurement;
- understand descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) for each measurement level, and to compute them by hand (mean, mode, median, standard deviation, variance ratio, interquartile range);
- compute descriptive statistics with SPSS (mean, mode, median, standard deviation, variance ratio, interquartile range);
- understand how to read (cross-)tables, plots, and graphs;
- apply normal distributions, z-transforms, and null-hypothesis significance testing;
- apply concepts of elementary probability theory, normal and binomial distributions;
- understand the following simple inferential statistical analysis techniques: t-tests, chi-square, correlation, simple and (hierarchical) multiple regression, and moderation and mediation analysis, and some of the main assumptions and limitations that each of these techniques have;
- use SPSS to analyse quantitative data, to interpret SPSS output, and to report in a scientifically sound manner on the results of the following statistical analysis techniques: t-tests, chi-square, correlation, simple and multiple regression, and moderation and mediation analysis;
- independently develop new statistical analysis skills (e.g. by reading a statistics textbook, or a scientific article) on the basis of the knowledge and understanding that has been gained through this course;
- select appropriate statistical analysis techniques when confronted with a given research problem;
- interpret methods and results sections of scientific papers that use quantitative data analysis, and identify the limitations and weak points in an analysis strategy;
- demonstrate a keen interest in, and a critical attitude towards research results that are commonly presented in the popular press, and be able to identify the weaknesses and pitfalls that often lead newspapers to jump to the wrong conclusions about research findings.

### Activities:

- lectures;
- computer practical (SPSS).

### Examination:

- multiple Choice exam (50%);
- SPSS exam (50%).

### Literature:

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics., 5th edition. Sage.

Opleiding Fase Specialisatie Periode BTO Tourism (joint degree) BSc 3WD+4WD+5WD+6WD